December 2   2015, Wednesday
emedinexus emedinexus
Dr KK AggarwalDr KK AggarwalE-cigarette: Studies have associated e-cigarette with an increased risk of conventional cigarette smoking among youth. A new prospective study was conducted in 2530 ninth-grade students who had never used a combustible tobacco product and compared students who had ever used e-cigarettes with never users. Compared with never users, ever users of e-cigarettes were more likely to report use of any combustible tobacco product at both 6-month (31 vs 8%) and 12-month (25 vs 9%) follow-up (JAMA 2015;314:700).

Platelet-rich plasma for acute muscle injury: PRP injections have been touted as an effective treatment for acute muscle and tendon injuries. The results of a recent randomized trial of 90 professional athletes with acute, MRI-confirmed hamstring injury cast further doubt on the effectiveness of PRP. In this trial, athletes treated with a single PRP injection in addition to intensive physical therapy did not return to play any faster than athletes treated with intensive physical therapy alone. Re-injury rates were also similar (Br J Sports Med. 2015;49:943).

(Source: Uptodate)
Amit Sharma and Nilesh Aggarwal

We are extremely happy to have been part of IMA Satyagraha campaign and would like to congratulate the Indian doctor community as a whole. We are aiming to be a digital voice of all Indian doctors and will continue to work towards raising such important issues. Currently, we are in our Beta phase and we will soon be introducing features such as interesting cases, online CME's, conference updates etc. Please do register and read eMediNews, eIMANews as well as other engaging content on the website/app. You can also add other doctors to your network, find long lost alumni, chat and discuss cases, post questions for the medical fraternity, create your detailed medical resume and lots more.
Breaking News
Centre to introduce 4 new vaccines for infants in Jan

The Union government will introduce four new vaccines for infants in the country from January next year. The initiative is part of Mission Indradhanush - a flagship programme to immunize children against preventable diseases and reduce infant mortality, said Union minister of health and family welfare J P Nadda on Saturday. The vaccines will include those preventing rubella, Japanese encephalitis, measles and the Rotavirus vaccine among others. Mission Indradhanush targets to immunize all children against seven vaccine preventable diseases which include diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, measles and hepatitis B…… (ET Healthworld)

New approach to preserving organs for later use

Researchers at Oregon State University have discovered a new approach to preserving tissues and even organs for later use. Ice-free cryopreservation has already found widespread use in simpler applications such as preserving semen, blood, embryos, plant seeds and some other biological applications. But it is often constrained by the crystallisation that occurs when water freezes, which can damage or destroy tissues and cells. To address this, researchers have used various types of cryoprotectants that help reduce cell damage during the freezing process - among them is ethylene glycol, literally the same compound often used in automobile radiators to prevent freezing. "This could be an important step toward the preservation of more complex tissues and structures," said Adam Higgins from Oregon State University …… (ET Healthworld)
Dr Good Dr Bad
Make Sure
IMA Digital TV
IMA Digital TV
Specialty Updates
• The 30-day postoperative rate of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was significantly associated with the number of antibiotic classes given in the 60 days prior to surgery and the complexity of the surgery, suggested a study published online in JAMA Surgery.

& More gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding occurred in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with the novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) rivaroxaban than in those who received warfarin, suggested a retrospective analysis of the ROCKET AF trial, published in the December 1 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

& Obese patients, who lose a substantial amount of weight, experience significantly slower degeneration of their knee cartilage, suggested a study presented at the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) meeting.

& Men with type 2 diabetes and low testosterone levels can benefit significantly from testosterone treatment, reported a study published in Diabetes Care. Researchers noted that testosterone did not change the men's body weight, but there was a reduction in total body fat of 3 kilograms, while muscle mass increased by the same amount.

& In a peer-reviewed article, "Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treatment with New Physiotherapeutic Device," authors have demonstrated the remarkable efficacy of Thermobalancing therapy and Dr Allen's Device for prostate enlargement. The new treatment method is highly effective in managing lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and chronic prostatitis, said the researchers in their article published in the November issue of The Urology Journal

& Intracapsular (ITA) and extracapsular tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (ETA) appear to be equally effective for most cases of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), suggested a retrospective study published in JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery.

& More extensive colonization of skin by Staphylococcus aureus is associated with greater severity of atopic dermatitis, suggested new research published online in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

& New research, published in the journal Personality and Individual Differences, suggests that people who follow their gut feelings might be less likely to act immorally. The study predicts that people who follow their instinct are less likely to cheat.
Gambling in Indian Mythology

Gambling is mentioned on Diwali celebrations in the story of Mahabharata. It teaches us about taking calculated risk in life. In Mahabharata it teaches us that excess of everything is bad. If Yudhishthira had not risked Draupadi on that day while playing dice, there would have been no Mahabharata. The same divine dice game became a vice for that moment. Even if you lose while gambling, one should not lose heart and take conscious based decisions. Krishna (consciousness) saving Draupadi (material things in life) means the same. On Diwali day one starts with new projects in life and taking calculated risks makes sense. Gambling on Diwali can be a symbolic game but should not become a vice. According to mythology, Goddess Parvati enjoyed playing dice with Lord Shiva on this day. Losing and winning is part of life and one must learn to balance the two states of mind.
Legal Quote
Martin F. D'Souza vs Mohd. Ishfaq, 3541 of 2002, dated 17.02.2009

” For civil liability only damages can be imposed by the court but for criminal liability the doctor can also be sent to jail (apart from damages which may be imposed on him in a civil suit or by the consumer fora). ”
Digital IMA
IMA Digital TV
IMA Digital TV
IMA National Health Scheme

1. Aims and Objectives of the Scheme
To provide financial assistance to the members and his/her spouse, child (ren) and parent(s) on the event of hospitalization, diagnosis and management of the following diseases:-
(a) Heart Disease: Angioplasty, Bypass Surgery and Valve replacement Surgery.
(b) Renal Failure, Hemodialysis, Renal Transplantation,
(c) All Malignant diseases
(d) Brain Tumors
(e) Hip and Knee replacement surgery
(f) Spine and disc surgery
(g) Cerebrovascular accidents
(h) Road Traffic and other accidents
(i) Other major illness requiring hospitalization approved by the scrutinizing committee appointed by the IMA National President
2. Beneficiaries
a) Benefits of the scheme shall be available only to the member and his / her spouse, child (ren) and parent(s), if the member has paid the membership subscription of his and his/ her spouse child (ren) and Parent(s).
b) In the event of death of a member, the spouse, child (ren) and parents can opt as a beneficiary member of the scheme.
c) Such a beneficiary member shall not have any other right including the right to contest or to vote.
3. Eligibility for Membership
(a) Life member of IMA.
(b). Member should be below the age of 80 years at the time of joining.
4. Admission Fee. (A F) ( One time pay )

For members / Spouse / Parents
(a) Below age of 35 yrs
Rs. 1000.00
(b) Below age of 45 Yrs but above 35 yrs
Rs. 1250.00
(c) Below age of 55 Yrs but above 45 yrs
Rs. 1750.00
d) Below age of 60 Yrs but above 55 yrs
Rs. 5000.00
(e) Below age of 65 Yrs but above 60 yrs
Rs. 7000.00
(f) Below age of 70 Yrs but above 65 yrs.
Rs. 8000.00
(g) Below age of 80 Yrs but above 70 yrs
`` Rs. 10,000.00

For child (ren) of members Child (ren) below the age of 25 Yrs Rs. 1000 .00

5. Annual Membership Subscription (AMS-to Pay Every Year)

Every member/ beneficiary member Rs 500.00
Out of Rs 500/- annual membership fee Rs 300/- will go to National IMA account and Rs 200 to Scheme.
6. Annual Financial Assistance Contribution (AFAC) (To Pay every Year )

Every Member / beneficiary member / Child (ren) shall pay the following amount.
i. Children below 25 yrs Rs. 2500.00
Rs. 1000.00
ii. Below the age of 55 yrs
Rs. 5000.00
iii. Above 55 and below 60 yrs
Rs. 1750.00
iv. Above 60 and below 65 yrs
Rs. 7000.00
v. Above 65 and below 70 yrs
Rs. 8000.00
vi. Above 70 and below 80 yrs
Rs. 10000.00

When a member / Spouse / Child(ren) / Parents first join the scheme they should pay the Admission fee, Annual membership subscription and Advance financial assistance contribution(AF + AMS + AFAC) at the rate mentioned above. Prescribed application form along with the admission fee, Annual membership subscription and Advance Financial Assistance Contribution drawn in favor of the scheme “IMA National Health Scheme” by A/C Payee draft payable at the secretary’s office has to be sending to the Hony. Secretary’s office. No cash or money order will be accepted. Admission fee (AF) is one time payment.
Annual membership subscription and advance financial assistance contribution shall be paid every year (AMS +AFAC).
Fess Schedule to Pay at the time of joining (First Year)
Less than 25   1000  500   2500   4000 55 TO 60   5000  500   5000   10500 
25 Up to 35   1000   500   3000   4500 60 TO 65  7000  500   7000  14500 
35 up to 45   1250   500   3000   4750 65 TO 70  8000  500   8000   16500 
45 up to 55   1750  500   3000   5250 70 TO 80  10000  500  10000   20500 

AMS and AFAC have to be paid every year. AMS and AFAC have to be paid every year.

“Lock in period for those who join the scheme below 60 years is 1 year and above 60 years will be 2 years. Claims reaching the office 60 days after the date of discharge shall not be considered.”

Member/ spouse/ child (ren)/parents shall submit their application in the prescribed application form along with their admission fees, membership subscription and Advance Financial Assistance Contribution (AF + AMS + AFAC) drawn in favor of the scheme “IMA National Health Scheme” by A/C Payee draft or local cheque payable at the head office - secretary’s office place at Thiruvananthapuram with endorsement by local branch secretary or Branch president of IMA with copy of life membership certificate and passport size photo of member. No cash or money order will be accepted. From 2nd Year onwards members need to pay only Annual Subscription and Advance Finance Assistance Contribution (AMS +AFAC).

Salient Features of IMA NHS

• In IMANHS there is no escalation of annual premium amount even if the age progresses to the next slab for that particular insured amount. For example a person joining the scheme at the age of 25 years, will be paying the same amount of Rs.3000/- as renewal fee per annum for an upper limit of 2 lakhs, even if his age passes on to the next slab.
• All pre-existing diseases are covered.
• No screening test required.
• You can join up till the age of 80 years.
• Immediate relatives of life members of IMA can join.
• Original bills are returned at request, and hence can be utilized for other insurance schemes.
• More than an insurance company IMANHS exist for the medical fraternity and its family.
All communications may be sent to the Secretary.

Dr. Alex Franklin
Dr. PNRA -34, Dr. Pai Road
Thiruvananthapuram - 695012, Kerala
Ph: +919447016953
Retirement Tax Suggestions: Traps to avoid

• Giving too much of the money to the government in taxes
• Failing to put enough money into appreciating assets (these include financial investments, art, and the right real estate)
• Giving too much money to creditors in interest payments
• Spending too much on intangible expenses, (this might include rent, utilities, entertainment and travel)
• Spending too much on depreciating assets (these might include furniture, clothing, boats and cars).

(Source: IJCP)
22nd MTNL Perfect Health Mela, the annual flagship event of the Heart Care Foundation of India

Clinical features of GAS include sudden onset of sore throat, tonsillar exudate, tender cervical adenopathy, and fever. Influenza is suspected when present in the community, and sore throat is accompanied by myalgias, cough and high fever.
Accelerate expansion of ART to all people living with HIV, says WHO

On World AIDS Day WHO emphasizes that expanding antiretroviral therapy to all people living with HIV is key to ending the AIDS epidemic within a generation. “The Millennium Development Goal of reversing the HIV epidemic was reached ahead of the 2015 deadline - an incredible achievement that testifies to the power of national action and international solidarity," declared WHO Director-General, Margaret Chan. Expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in a stark reduction of AIDS-related deaths. At the same time, increasingly effective prevention efforts have reduced numbers of new HIV infections. Since the epidemic’s peak in 2004, the number of - deaths has fallen by 42% with some 7.8 million lives being saved over the last 15 years, according to a new WHO report. The number of new infections has fallen by 35% since the turn of the century. Over the last 15 years, scale-up of ART has been most dramatic in the WHO African Region where now more than 11 million people are receiving HIV treatment, up from 11 000 at the turn of the century. Globally, in June 2015 close to 16 million people out of a total of 37 million people living with HIV were taking ART……… (WHO)
Asia-Pacific region faces epidemic of HIV among adolescents

India, China and Pakistan are among the 10 countries in the Asia-Pacific that account for 98% of youngsters aged 10 to 19 living with HIV, according to a UN report which said the region is facing a “hidden epidemic” of HIV among adolescents. The report ‘Adolescents: Under the Radar in the Asia-Pacific AIDS Response’, published by the Asia-Pacific Inter-Agency Task Team on Young Key Populations, which includes UNICEF and the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS warned that the AIDS epidemic cannot be ended as a public health threat by 2030 without tackling the issue of adolescents. In 2014, 220,000 adolescents aged 10-19 were estimated to be living with HIV in Asia and the Pacific. India is among the 10 countries in the region accounting for 98% of those aged 10 to 19 living with HIV. The other countries are Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam… … (Live Mint)
Weight-based PET-CT protocols may reduce radiation risk

Reductions in radiation dose by 43% may be achieved by using a patient-specific, weight-based protocols during whole-body FDG PET/CT imaging, as per a study by Charbel Saade, PhD, of the American University in Beirut, and colleagues reported at the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) meeting. That dose reduction translated to a 69% in the lifetime attributable risk to female patients and a 21% reduction is radiation-related injury to male patients… … (Medpage Today)
Most thalassemia cases remain undiagnosed

In August 2012, a national program - Action on birth defect - was started in Dehradun, Haridwar, Roorkee, Haldwani and Almora wherein in about 50 children were identified as thalassemia major, a severe form of the disease. Pithoragarh, Champawat, Chamoli and Uttarkashi are some of the districts in the state where majority of population may be thalassemia carriers due to rampant migration and resultant inter-caste marriages which increase the risk of getting the disease manifold. Acknowledging that the growth of the disease had been rapid in Uttarakhand, Dr J S Arora, general secretary, National Thalassemia Society, said, " A small state like Uttarakhand needs to be all the more cautious seeing it has borders with populous state from where migration occurs regularly. Also, there are hardly any blood banks here and storage facilities in existing ones are abysmal." Another alarming trend is that cases where families have more than one thalassemic child are regularly surfacing in Uttarakhand G-IMA…… (ET Healthworld)
Diabetes Update

• Morbidity from diabetes involves both macrovascular (atherosclerosis) and microvascular disease (retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy).
• Smoking cessation is essential for patients who smoke.
• Cardiovascular morbidity can also be significantly reduced with aggressive management of hypertension, cholesterol (goal LDL less than 80 mg/dL and use of aspirin (80 mg/day) in patients with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease.
• Glycemic control can minimize risks for retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and has been shown to decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease for type 1 diabetes.
• A1c goal is <7% for most patients.
• More stringent control (A1c <6%) may be indicated for individual patients with type 1 diabetes and during pregnancy.
• A higher target A1c (i.e., <8%) may be preferable for some type 2 patients with comorbidities or with an anticipated lifespan, owing to advanced age or other factors, that is too brief to benefit from the effects of intensive therapy on long–term complications.
• The appropriate target for A1c in fit elderly patients who have a life expectancy of over 10 years should be similar to those developed for younger adults (<7.0%).
• The risk of hypoglycemia, which may lead to impaired cognition and function, is substantially increased in the elderly. Avoidance of hypoglycemia is an important consideration in establishing goals and choosing therapeutic agents in elderly adults.
Scientists record real-time dopamine release in Parkinson's patients

Scientists have reported first-ever measurements of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter involved in learning with unprecedented precision in the brains of people with Parkinson's disease. The measurements, collected during brain surgery as the conscious patients played an investment game, demonstrate how rapid dopamine release encodes information crucial for human choice. The researchers detected changes in the levels of dopamine a thousand times faster than had previously been recorded in humans. These rapid measurements, combined with enhanced chemical specificity, led the scientists to discover that dopamine has a far more complex role than formerly thought. The findings are published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…… (ET Healthworld)
WP(C) No.8706/2015 titled “Indian Medical Association Vs. Union of India & Anr (NCERT)” Delhi High Court, New Delhi

Click here to read the proposed changes
IMA Live Webcast

Click here

Central India Unit of the UNESCO Chair in Bioethics,
Haifa and IMA UNESCO Chair in Bioethics,

December 11, 2015, 9:00A.M
PGIMER - RML Hospital, New Delhi

For Registration for 16 IMA Nominee
Phone: 9811841351
Dr. R.P Beniwal
Bioethical issues in medical practice
Duty as a parent

Smita N Deshpande
Head, Dept. of Psychiatry, De-addiction Services
PGIMER-Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital
Park Street, New Delhi

Rina is mother to Chini, an 11 year old girl with mental retardation. Chini can barely look after herself. Her mother is constantly worried as to how she will look after herself when her periods start. At present Chini has barely learnt to bather herself, speak intelligible sentences and move around by herself. However Chini has no idea about her own disability and loves watching romantic scenes on TV. Rina is worried that in these insecure times, Chini may end up being abused or taken advantage of due to her lack of understating. They approach you as a doctor to provide a certificate so that the parents can ask for a hysterectomy. You tell them that this is against human rights and in fact, there is a court judgment against this practice but they keep insisting, because they see you both as a doctor as well as a friend. What should you do?

a) Go all out to help them for the operation because you feel that times are actually bad and chances of (possible) rape and pregnancy are high?
b) Go by the book and say there is nothing you can do?
c) Suggest alternative treatments?

Any other suggestions and solutions? Do write in!

Responses received

It is the responsibility of the mother to protect her from sexual abuses and subsequent pregnancy as she cannot take care of herself. The best course would be to get a certificate from psychologist that she is mentally unfit and cannot take care of herself. Then she should get her operated for tubectomy to save her from subsequent pregnancy and then get her treated by some psychologist for her mental illness. If she recovers and becomes mentally fit she may get her operated for reversal of procedure, reuniting the tubes. This will give her a chance of getting pregnant which is very important factor for any lady. Hysterectomy will be a permanent failure to get the child of her own, which becomes unethical. Dr BR Bhatnagar
IMA Digital TV
Inspirational Story
Genghis Khan and his Hawk

One morning Genghis Khan, the great king and warrior, rode out into the woods to have a day’s sport. Many of his friends were with him. They rode out gaily, carrying their bows and arrows. Behind them came the servants with the hounds. It was a merry hunting party. The woods rang with their shouts and laughter. They expected to carry much game home in the evening.

On the king’s wrist sat his favorite hawk, for in those days hawks were trained to hunt. At a word from their masters they would fly high up into the air, and look around for prey. If they chanced to see a deer or a rabbit, they would swoop down upon it swift as any arrow. All day long Genghis Khan and his huntsmen rode through the woods. But they did not find as much game as they expected. Toward evening they started for home. The king had often ridden through the woods, and he knew all the paths. So while the rest of the party took the nearest way, he went by a longer road through a valley between two mountains. The day had been warm, and the king was very thirsty. His pet hawk left his wrist and flew away. It would be sure to find its way home.

The king rode slowly along. He had once seen a spring of clear water near this pathway. If he could only find it now! But the hot days of summer had dried up all the mountain brooks. At last, to his joy, he saw some water trickling down over the edge of a rock. He knew that there was a spring farther up. In the wet season, a swift stream of water always poured down here; but now it came only one drop at a time.

The king leaped from his horse. He took a little silver cup from his hunting bag. He held it so as to catch the slowly falling drops. It took a long time to fill the cup; and the king was so thirsty that he could hardly wait. At last it was nearly full. He put the cup to his lips, and was about to drink. All at once there was a whirring sound in the air, and the cup was knocked from his hands. The water was all spilled upon the ground. The king looked up to see who had done this thing. It was his pet hawk. The hawk flew back and forth a few times, and then alighted among the rocks by the spring. The king picked up the cup, and again held it to catch the trickling drops.

This time he did not wait so long. When the cup was half full, he lifted it toward his mouth. But before it had touched his lips, the hawk swooped down again, and knocked it from his hands. And now the king began to grow angry. He tried again, and for the third time the hawk kept him from drinking. The king was now very angry indeed. "How do you dare to act so?" he cried. "If I had you in my hands, I would wring your neck!" Then he filled his cup again. But before he tried to drink, he drew his sword. "Now, Sir Hawk," he said, "that is the last time."

He had hardly spoken before the hawk swooped down and knocked the cup from his hand. But the king was looking for this. With a quick sweep of the sword he struck the bird as it passed. The next moment the poor hawk lay bleeding and dying at its master’s feet. "That is what you get for your pains," said Genghis Khan. But when he looked for his cup, he found that it had fallen between two rocks, where he could not reach it. "At any rate, I will have a drink from that spring," he said to himself. With that he began to climb the steep bank to the place from which the water trickled. It was hard work, and the higher he climbed, the thirstier he became. At last he reached the place. There indeed was a pool of water; but what was that lying in the pool, and almost filling it? It was a huge, dead snake of the most poisonous kind. The king stopped. He forgot his thirst. He thought only of the poor dead bird lying on the ground below him.

"The hawk saved my life!" he cried, "and how did I repay him? He was my best friend, and I have killed him." He clambered down the bank. He took the bird up gently, and laid it in his hunting bag. Then he mounted his horse and rode swiftly home. He said to himself, "I have learned a sad lesson today, and that is, never to do anything in anger."
eMedi Quiz
Difference between Peripheral vascular disease and leg cramps is that PVD may result in cramp-like leg pain in a pattern of intermittent claudication, which occurs during limb use and is relieved by rest, unlike leg cramps.

Is this True of false, if false, what is the reason?

Yesterday’s Mind Teaser: The signs and symptoms of H1N1 flu and seasonal human flu are same although gastrointestinal manifestations are more common with H1N1 flu. True or false?

Answer for Yesterday’s Mind Teaser: True

Answers received from: Dr A C Dhariwal, Dr Bharat Bhushan Aggarwal, Dr Jainendra Upadhyay, Dr Poonam Chablani, Daivadheenam Jella, Dr Avtar Krishan.

Answer for 30th November Mind Teaser: 4. All of the above

Answers received from: Dr Rajesh S Joshi, Dr Jainendra Upadhyay, Dr B R Bhatnagar.
Think big, Think smart, Think positive, Think beautiful, Think great, I know this is too much for u, so here is a shortcut. Just think about ME!
Readers column
Dear Sir, we enjoy reading eMedinewS. Regards: Dr Shipra
Press Release
                                                                                                                                             A World AIDS Day initiative

HIV and AIDS - a social taboo in India

A UN report shows that India has the third-highest number of people living with HIV infection in the world accounting for about 4 out of 10 people suffering from the infection in Asia

In a country as diverse and as large as India is, it is possible for the population to contact innumerable moderate to severe diseases and infections. One of the most dangerous being HIV/AIDS. More than 2.1 million people continue to be affected by this deadly virus in the country despite the mass awareness campaigns run by the government. What makes it worse is the social taboo that is associated with the disease often forcing patients to keep the disease hidden from others.

To simply understand, HIV and AIDS, both terms are often used together but are different. HIV or Human immunodeficiency virus, which attacks and destroys white blood cells or T Lymphocytes in the immune system making the human body prone to all types of diseases, cancer germs and bacteria. HIV can be transmitted from one person to another when a person comes in a direct contact with the mucous membrane or the bloodstream of the infected person.
On the other hand, AIDS is a condition, which develops in the advanced stages of HIV infection due to a weak immune system.

Raising awareness about the disease, Padma Shri Awardee Dr. A Marthanda Pillai – National President and Padma Shri Awardee Dr. KK Aggarwal, Honorary Secretary General, IMA and President, HCFI said, “HIV/AIDS continue to affect a large section of the Indian population despite various mass awareness campaigns, availability of various state-of-the-art medical interventions, and evolving technology. It is because of the social stigma that our society has associated with the disease; that people continue to avoid routine check-ups. It is important to educate the masses about the various disease prevention measures along with the fact that people with HIV can live a normal life. The government and various healthcare associations must also ensure the availability of condoms in smaller cities and towns where the disease is more rampant."

Causes of HIV/AIDS:

Sexual Transmission: An individual can contact HIV/AIDS if he comes in sexual contact or with a person who is already infected with HIV through sexual secretions like rectal, genital or oral mucous membranes. It happens when two individuals indulge in unprotected sex or shares any object (sex toys) with a person who is infected.

Perinatal transmission: A child can come in contact with the HIV during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.

Blood Transmission: Contacting HIV through bloodstream and blood transfusion is although rare, can still happen despite staunch screening and precautionary measures. And one of the most common causes of this is sharing and reusing syringes contaminated with HIV. Additionally, individuals who use tattoo syringes without necessary precaution can also spread the infection.

To fully understand the nature of the diseases, it is important to know about the myths associated with HIV/AIDS. One of the biggest existing myths is that related to the transmission of the HIV/AIDS virus. HIV/AIDS cannot be transmitted by casually coming in contact with an already infected person through gestures like shaking hands, hugging, kissing, sneezing, touching, using the same toilet, sharing clothes and towels, sharing the same cutlery or mouth-to-mouth resuscitation

HIV/AIDS can be diagnosed with the help of a blood test. And if that blood test comes positive, an individual is advised to do follow up for the blood tests to be sure that the person is HIV positive. If that is the case, the person is suggested to undergo several other tests to see how far the disease has progressed for the suitable treatment. In cases where an individual comes in contact with an infected person, it is advised that he should take up the tests at the earliest.

As per 2015 recommendation every HIV Positive person should be started an anti-HIV drug at diagnosis.