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14th August, 2017
Optimum Noise levels for class room teaching

Everyday exposure to noise over time has an impact upon our ability to hear and on the degree of hearing loss that develops. Continuous exposure to sounds above 85 db can cause progressive hearing loss.  Noise-induced hearing loss is the most common and obvious outcome of noise pollution. It is also an important occupational health concern due to high workplace noise levels. However, noise pollution has also been associated with other health problems such as stress, anxiety, high blood pressure, increases heart rate, heart disease. It may manifest as disturbed sleep/ insomnia, headache, fatigue, irritability, loss of concentration and decreased work efficiency.
Noise levels are also an increasing concern in class rooms. The source of noise can be external such as street traffic, playground noise, airplanes, etc. The source of noise can be indoor, such as hallway noises, noise from other rooms etc. or noise within the classroom itself such as conversation, noise from fans, lights, paper, etc. Noise in a class room is not conducive to learning. Background noise in classroomsinterferes with auditory communication and adversely affects speech perception and speech recognition. It interferes with language and reading development and hampers academic performance. Attention and memory are also adversely affected.
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MDR TB should be declared a public health emergency
Not adhering to prescribed medications can lead to MDR TB in existing TB patients

New Delhi, 13 August 2017: As per available statistics, India accounts for one-fourth of the global TB burden of both TB and MDR TB. About 1.3 lakh incident multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB cases occur in India every year, including 79,000 MDR-TB cases among the notified pulmonary cases. As per the IMA, to prevent the epidemic of MDR TB, it should be declared a public health emergency.

Multidrug resistant (MDR) TB is TB resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin with or without resistance to other first-line anti-TB drugs. Extensive drug resistant (XDR) TB is TB resistant also to a fluoroquinolone (ofloxacin, levofloxacin or moxifloxacin) and a second-line injectable anti TB drug (kanamycin, amikacin or capreomycin).
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